“It is a story, and science fiction is only the pretext. I wouldn’t even know how to define SF…I think it’s the genre where you can deal with and imagine unhuman characters, but in my book my apes are men, there is no doubt. I believe it was triggered by a visit to the zoo where I watched the gorillas. I was impressed by their human-like expressions. It led me to dwell upon and imagine relationships between humans and apes.” — Pierre Boulle.
Fast-talking producer Arthur P. Jacobs had been looking for a King Kong like story to bring to the screen when he found the next best thing, French writer Pierre Boulle’s 1963 novel La planète des singes, or Monkey Planet, later renamed Planet of the Apes. Early in the project’s development Jacobs came up with a dazzling inspiration. Unlike the book, which mostly took place in an alien world, what if the main character was on Earth the whole time and both he and the audience didn’t know it? Jacobs took the story idea to the creator of TV’s The Twilight Zone, Rod Serling. A former Purple Heart recipient who had been wounded in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944, the very anti-war Serling wrote an extremely serious, almost humorless screenplay set in a simian city that resembled 1950s New York and initially proved far too expensive for any Hollywood Studio to produce.
“Imagination… its limits are only those of the mind itself.” —
After making the rounds and being soundly rejected by Hollywood executives, the ever-hustling Jacobs approached the forty-two year old former John Charles Carter, who upon deciding to become an actor had renamed himself after his mother, Lila Charlton, and his stepfather Chet Heston. By that time a well-established movie star, Charlton Heston was going through a political metamorphis. A lifelong Democrat, Heston had been shooting the historical drama, The Warlord, on location in Northern California in 1964 (The film was released in 1965). Each morning on his drive to work the Lyndon Johnson supporting Heston passed by a campaign billboard that pictured GOP nominee Barry Goldwater with the caption,” In your heart you know he’s right.” One day, it simply hit Heston that the sign was true, Goldwater was right! Heston still voted for Johnson in 1964 but was on his way to becoming a well-known champion of conservative causes. Although he later called Jacobs “a slippery character” Heston was intrigued by the Apes script and committed to the project almost immediately with the suggestion that Warlord director Franklin J. Schaffner be added the creative team. Not only did he smell a hit, but Heston also felt Apes could make a powerful statement about the flawed nature of man.
“As much as any character I have ever played, Taylor reflects my own views about mankind. I have infinite faith and admiration for the extraordinary individual man – the Gandhi, the Christ, the Caesar, the Michelangelo, the Shakespeare – but very limited expectations for man as a species. And that, of course, was Taylor’s view. And the irony of a man so misanthropic that he almost welcomes the chance to escape entirely from the world finding himself then cast in a situation where he is spokesman for his whole species and forced to defend their qualities and abilities – it was a very appealing thing to act.” — Charlton Heston.
With a bankable movie star as part of his pitch, Jacobs found Apes to be an easier sell. After expressing reservations about humans in monkey make-up being taken seriously by audiences, Twentieth Century Fox studio President Richard Zanuck, son of the legendary producer Darryl Zanuck, shelled out fifty grand to film a screen test showing Heston facing off against an intelligent ape, played by Charlton’s former co-star from The Ten Commandments (1956) Edward G. Robinson; the results were convincing enough for Planet of the Apes to be green lighted. To save money the fictional Ape City became primitive, rather than the modern metropolis imagined by Boulle and Serling. Principle casting included former child star Roddy McDowall as the sometimes sarcastic, but ultimately well-meaning chimp archaeologist Cornelius. Kim Hunter, a previous Oscar winner for A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), whose career had slowed after being accused of having communist sympathies and being blacklisted, played McDowall’s soon-to-be mate, the empathetic animal psychologist Dr. Zira. When Edward G. Robinson could not handle the daily arduous Apes make-up process he was replaced by Shakespearian actor Maurice Evans as the orangutan Minister of Science and Keeper of the Faith, Dr. Zaius, Heston’s main adversary in the film, who had no compunctions about performing lobotomies on humans. And the beautiful twenty-two-year-old Linda Harrison, who at he time was dating and would later marry studio boss Zanuck, was hired to play Heston’s love interest, the mute, animal-like Nova.
I had never thought of this motion picture in terms of being science fiction. More or less, it was a political film, with a certain amount of Swiftian satire, and perhaps science fiction last.” – Planet of the Apes Director Franklin J. Schaffner
Blacklisted writer Michael Wilson, whose credits included another Boulle novel-turned-into-film The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), was brought in to add both political messages and some needed laughs to the script. The different ape species took on varying characteristics, the chimpanzees were depicted as both seekers of knowledge and pacifists, the orangutans became politicians and not surprisingly were portrayed as hypocrites, leaving the military operations to be carried out by the very threatening gorillas. In one of the movie’s most frightening scenes, the human hunting gorillas are momentarily hidden behind eight-foot-high swaying corn stalks, before both the audience and Heston get their first view of the menacing creatures on horseback (one possible explanation for their aggressiveness may have been that there were no female gorillas in the movie). When Heston’s astronaut character, George Taylor, was put on trial by the orangutans, Michael Wilson wanted the scene to resemble the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings in 1951 where Wilson had given the impression that he was a communist sympathizer. Heston and Schaffner tried to lighten things up by suggesting the orangutan tribunal cover their mouth, ears, and eyes, imitating the famous 17nth Century Japanese monkey carvings: “see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”; Heston later admitted the ape’s facial gesture scene was over-the-top and cliched and was a bit embarrassed that it was left in the finished picture; he blamed the inclusion on Apes testing well in sneak previews and the producers not wanting to take a chance on changing anything.